Parallel Universe v.s. the Bible


Initially I was fascinated by the sci-fi shows about the possibilities of a parallel universe; which means that according to Einstein’s theory, there is another you and me, living a very much similar lives as us, but because of the different possible decisions we made that makes the different outcome of the other ‘us’ in that particular parallel universe. And coming to the point of the existence of a parallel universe, I’ve doubted in terms of biblical context. And here’s the extract I’ve searched in relates to God and the universe from, as bibliography will be credited at the end of this article, and hence bringing to you about these claims which have to be straighten out.

Though in certain context, you may not agree with the context of the refute of the claims of the existence of the parallel universe, but it is not unlike the sci-fi movies or any shows about people seeing their other selves on the ‘alternate universe’, which according to their theory, there is another ‘them’. But what does the bible stands? That’s my main question, and ironically, God only created us individually and no other us, which is clear enough that all of us are created uniquely different from one another, which makes us special in His creation.

Evolution: an ancient pagan idea

While studying ancient history at University, I came across the pagan beliefs about origins. It was this study that caused me first to question evolution and the vast ages given for the Universe. It was later, after many years of scientific investigation, that I finally broke free from a liberal understanding that sought to harmonise naturalism with biblical Christian faith.

The Greeks

As I read the works of the Greek philosophers, who lived between about 600–100BC, I was amazed to discover primitive evolutionary theory and vast ages long before Darwin and modern assumptions. The fragments of Anaximander (c. 610–546 BC) taught that ‘humans originally resembled another type of animal, namely fish.1 There was Democritus (c.460–370BC) who taught that primitive people began to speak with ‘confused’ and ‘unintelligible’ sounds but ‘gradually they articulated words.’2 Epicurus (341–270BC) taught that there was no need of a God or gods, for the Universe came about by a chance movement of atoms.3

After them, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (AD23–79) said, ‘ … we are so subject to chance that Chance herself takes the place of God; she proves that God is uncertain.4

Concerning the great ages of the Universe, Plato and many Greek philosophers held to the view that this present Universe came about millions of years ago. Lactantius, writing in the fourth century AD, said:

‘Plato and many others of the philosophers, since they were ignorant of the origin of all things, and of that primal period at which the world was made, said that many thousands of ages had passed since this beautiful arrangement of the world was completed … ’.5 (An ‘age’ here is 1,000 years.)

Egyptians, Babylonians and Hindus

The Greeks borrowed some of these ideas from the Babylonians, Egyptians and Hindus, whose philosophies extended back centuries before. For example, one Hindu belief was that Brahman (the Universe) spontaneously evolved by itself like a seed, which expanded and formed all that exists about 4.3 billion years ago.6 These Hindus believed in an eternal Universe that had cycles of rebirth, destruction and dormancy, known as ‘kalpas’, rather like oscillating big bang theories. We also read in the Hindu Bhagavad Gita that the god Krishna says, ‘I am the source from which all creatures evolve.’7

Some of the Babylonians claimed that they had astronomical inscriptions on clay tablets for 730,000 years; others, like Berosus, claimed 490,000 years for the inscriptions.4 The Egyptians claimed that they had understood astronomy for more than 100,000 years.8

The early Christian Church Fathers constantly argued with the pagans about the age of the earth, or about the age of civilization. They were unanimous that God had created the earth less than 6,000 years before they wrote.9 For example, one of the most influential, Augustine (AD354–430), in his most famous work, City of God, has a whole chapter, Of the Falseness of the History Which Allots Many Thousand Years to the World’s Past, where he says:

‘Let us, then, omit the conjectures of men who know not what they say, when they speak of the nature and origin of the human race. … They are deceived, too, by those highly mendacious documents which profess to give the history of many thousand years, though, reckoning by the sacred writings, we find that not 6000[9] years have yet passed.’10
Theophilus (AD115–181), Bishop of Antioch, wrote an apologetic work to the pagan magistrate Autolycus about the problem of the pagan long ages, mentioning Plato’s 200 million year period between the Flood and his time, and Apollonius the Egyptian’s claim of at least 155,625 years since creation.11

The ancient pagans may have calculated their vast ages through astrology because they regarded it as true science. Julius Africanus (AD200–245) wrote:

‘The Egyptians, indeed, with their boastful notions of their own antiquity, have put forth a sort of account of it by the hand of their astrologers in cycles and myriads of years … ’ [myriad = 10,000].12

Modern pagans?

Today scientists use far more complex ‘dating’ methods, e.g. radiometric techniques, to ‘prove’ vast ages. But, as Creation magazine has often shown, these methods are not measurements of time, but interpretations of measurements of such things as radioactive decay products, and such interpretations are based on faulty assumptions.13

More recently, scientists have been thinking up ‘new’ theories to explain how life could have developed on Earth, given the vanishingly small probability of spontaneous evolution actually happening. The late Francis Crick, the co-discoverer of DNA’s structure (along with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins), came to believe that aliens, and not God, were responsible for life on earth.14 The pagan gods have struck back with a vengeance!

More recently, much speculation has been made about the ‘multi-verse’, or ‘parallel Universe’ theory, such as a recent article in Scientific American by Max Tegmark.15,16 This fantasy is quite useful, because anything can now happen, as in the science fiction Matrix movies! However, such an idea is ancient. Augustine complained about it before AD430 when he said:

‘There are some, again, who, though they do not suppose that this world is eternal, are of opinion either that this is not the only world, but that there are numberless worlds or that indeed it is the only one, but that it dies, and is born again at fixed intervals, and this times without number.’17

Solomon wrote about 3,000 years ago:

‘There is nothing new under the sun. Is there anything of which it may be said, “See, this is new”? It has already been in ancient times before us. There is no remembrance of former things, nor will there be any remembrance of things that are to come by those who will come after’ (Ecclesiastes 1:9–11).

We should heed Theophilus’ words to Autolycus only about 150 years after Christ’s Resurrection:

‘For my purpose is not to furnish mere matter of much talk, but to throw light upon the number of years from the foundation of the world, and to condemn the empty labour and trifling of these authors, because there have neither been twenty thousand times ten thousand years from the flood to the present time, as Plato said, affirming that there had been so many years; nor yet 15 times 10,375 years, as we have already mentioned Apollonius the Egyptian gave out; nor is the world uncreated, nor is there a spontaneous production of all things, as Pythagoras and the rest dreamed; but, being indeed created, it is also governed by the providence of God, who made all things; and the whole course of time and the years are made plain to those who wish to obey the truth.’11

‘From the creation of the world to the deluge were 2242 years. … All the years from the creation of the world amount to a total of 5698[9] years, and the odd months and days.’18,19

References and notes

  1. Barnes, J., Early Greek Philosophy, Penguin Books, London, England, p. 72, 1987. Return to text.
  2. Cartledge, P., Democritus, Phoenix, London, England, pp. 20–21, 1998. Return to text.
  3. The Epicurus Reader: Selected Writings and Testimonia, translated and edited by Brad Inwood and L.P. Gerson, introduction by D.S. Hutchinson, Hackett Publishing Company, 1994. Return to text.
  4. Pliny the Elder, Natural history, translated with an introduction and notes by John F. Healy, Penguin Books, London, England, p. 13, 1991. Return to text.
  5. Lactantius, The Divine Institutes 7:14, Of the first and last times of the world, <>. Return to text.
  6. From The Mundaka Upanishad, Understanding Hinduism, pp. 5–9, <>. Return to text.
  7. The Bhagavad Gita, translation and introduction by Eknath Easwaran, Penguin, Arkana, p. 142, 1985. Return to text.
  8. Augustine of Hippo, City of God 18:40, About the most mendacious vanity of the Egyptians, in which they ascribe to their science an antiquity of a hundred thousand years, AD>410, <>. Return to text.
  9. These figures are based on the Greek Septuagint translation (ca. 250 BC), while our English Bibles are mainly translated from the standard Hebrew (Masoretic) text. Dr Pete Williams shows why the Masoretic Text is likely to be closer to the original Hebrew in ‘Some remarks preliminary to a Biblical chronology’, Journal of Creation 12(1):98–106, 1998; <>. Return to text.
  10. Augustine, ref. 8, 12:10, <>. Return to text.
  11. Theophilus, To Autolycus 3:26, Contrast between Hebrew and Greek Writings, AD 181, <>. Return to text.
  12. The Extant Fragments of the Five Books of the Chronography of Julius Africanus 3(1), On the mythical chronology of the Egyptians and Chaldeans, <>. Return to text.
  13. Walker, T., The way it really is: little-known facts about radiometric dating, Creation 24(4):20–23, 2002; Radiometric Dating Q&A <>. Return to text.
  14. Bates, G., Designed by aliens? Discoverers of DNA’s structure attack Christianity, Creation 25(4):54–55, 2003; <>. Return to text.
  15. Tegmark, M., Parallel Universes, Scientific American 288(5):31–41, May 2003. Return to text.
  16. But it is unscientific and special pleading. See Sarfati, J., Multiverses: Parallel Universes, in: Refuting Compromise, pp. 187–189, Master Books, Arkansas, USA, 2004. Return to text.
  17. Augustine, ref. 8, 12:11, Of those who suppose that this world indeed is not eternal, but that either there are numberless worlds, or that one and the same world is perpetually resolved into its elements, and renewed at the conclusion of fixed cycles, <>. Return to text.
  18. Theophilus, ref. 11, 3:28, Leading chronological epochs, <>. Return to text.
  19. An exact date for the age of the Universe cannot be ascertained, but we know from Scripture that it is somewhat less than 7,000 years—see Freeman, T.R., The Genesis 5 and 11 fluidity question, Journal of Creation 19(2):83–90, 2005; Sarfati, J., Biblical chronogenealogies, Journal of Creation 17(3):14–18,2003. Return to text.

Curiosity: Did God create the universe?

This Discovery Channel TV program “examines the creation of the universe through the commentary and opinions of Professor Stephen Hawking”.1 The aim appears to be to show that the concept of God is unnecessary for the creation of the universe, and hence likewise for life.

Making a universe

According to Prof. Hawking, you need two basic ingredients to make a universe. These are energy and space, and he tells us: “At the moment of the big bang, an entire universe of energy came into existence, and with it space.” He goes on to say: “The laws of physics demand the existence of something called negative energy.” And he illustrates this by showing a man with a shovel in his hand walking towards the centre of a flat field. The man then starts digging a hole, simultaneously making a small mound or hill by piling up the earth out of the hole onto his hill.

Prof. Hawking then tells us:

“The hole is the negative version of the hill. When the big bang produced a vast amount of positive energy, it simultaneously produced the same amount of negative energy. In this way, the positive and the negative add up to zero—always; it is a law of nature.”

The worthy Professor presumably hopes you didn’t notice two things that negate most of what he says about the big bang. These are:

  1. The formation of the hill needed a cause—the man with the shovel.
  2. This ‘cause’, i.e. the man, existed in time before he started to build the hill.

Prof. Hawking then asks: “Where is all this negative energy today?” and he answers his own question:

“It’s in space. According to the laws of nature concerning gravity and motion, space itself is a vast store of negative energy, enough to ensure that everything adds up to zero. The endless web of billions of galaxies pulling on each other by the force of gravity acts as a vast storage device. The positive energy is like the hill. The negative energy is spread throughout space. It means that if the universe adds up to nothing, you don’t need a God to create it. The universe is the ultimate free lunch.”

What triggered it?

Prof. Hawking moves on to ask what caused the spontaneous appearance of the universe, and he replies to that question with the answer:

“The laws of nature tell us that nothing caused the big bang.”

This, of course, raises the philosophical problem of whether anything can create itself, because until it exists, it is not in a position to cause itself.2

Prof. Hawking avoids this by appealing to ‘quantum mechanics at the sub-atomic level’. Here, he says,

“ … you enter a world where conjuring something out of nothing is possible, at least for a short time, because of quantum mechanics. … The universe was once very small, less than the size of a proton. This means the universe could pop into existence without violating the known laws of physics.”

Scientist critics of the big bang theory, Alex Williams and Prof. John Hartnett, comment:

“So is it possible that the universe just popped into existence out of the vacuum through nothing more than a quantum fluctuation? Some people think so, although they seem to conveniently forget that the laws of quantum physics would have had to already be in existence, so one could not say that the universe created itself ‘out of nothing’. Others have pointed out, however, that the lifetime of quantum events is inversely proportional to the mass of the object and this precludes any such cosmological quantum event. If a universe did pop into existence by quantum fluctuation, nobody would notice—the lifetime of a quantum event the size of our universe would be less than 10-103 seconds. Moreover, virtual particles today appear within the vacuum of space. In the primordial singularity there was no space and so no vacuum.”3

Cause and effect need time

Prof. Hawking concludes by telling us that time began at the big bang, and so the big bang had no cause, because

“ … there was no time before the big bang for the cause to happen. There was no time for God to exist in. What happened at the beginning of the universe is the final key for removing the need of a creator of the universe. … There is no God who directs our fate. There is probably no heaven and no after-life either. We have just one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that I am extremely grateful.”

But wait a minute, Prof. Hawking, you have just destroyed your analogy of the hill and the hole as an explanation of the formation of the universe. Both the hill and the hole needed a cause, and the cause existed in time before the hill-building began. Furthermore the Bible indicates that God exists outside of time.

Setting the record straight

  1. First of all, for skeptics like Stephen Hawking to maintain their atheistic faith they must provide a naturalistic explanation for everything that the Bible attributes to the power and will of Almighty God. This includes the creation of the universe; the big bang is the current naturalistic atheistic explanation. There have been, and are, others.4
  2. God tells in the Bible not only how He created the universe, but also when. It was not by means of anything resembling today’s big bang theory. He commanded the universe and all things in it into existence (Genesis ch. 1), beginning with the Earth (Genesis 1:2). And He tells us that this was recently, i.e. about 6,000 years ago.
  3. Time was one of the things that God created on Day One of Creation Week (Genesis 1:3–5).
  4. God is not limited by anything that He Himself created. God inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). He is able to declare the end from the beginning (Isaiah 46:10)—in fact, He says: “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (Revelation 22:13). All this means that He is transcendent to the universe (that is, He is outside of time), but He also chooses to reveal Himself within the universe.
  5. Contrary to the conclusion of Stephen Hawking, God does exist, and so does heaven, as also does hell. According to the Bible, there is indeed an after-life, and it involves Judgment (Hebrews 9:27–28). All those who wish to avoid the consequences of this are urged to make their peace with God now, that is, in this life. We do this through repentance and faith that God’s Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, who died on the cross to pay the penalty of our sins (Hebrews 9:28; 1 Peter 2:24), and rose again to be not only Saviour, but also the Judge of all the world (Acts 17:31).

Post Script

The Discovery Channel program Curiosity: Parallel universes do they exist?, shown in Australia two weeks after Curiosity: Did God create the universe? puts forward four competing theories from four different scientists for the alleged origin of so-called parallel universes. One of these theories is that when a black hole sucks a star into itself, gravity spins the star’s matter into a coiled spring waiting to explode. This matter then spews out the other side of the black hole as from a white hole. The scientist says that this shows “our big bang was the result of a black hole from another universe”. So one of the Discovery Channel scientists quoted in this episode in effect says that Prof. Hawking was wrong in the ‘science’ he used (i.e. no cause or time before the big bang) to ‘prove’ that God does not exist.


  1. Partly with Prof. Hawking’s computer-generated voice, and partly with the more stately sounding actor Benedict Cumberbatch standing in for him. Return to text.
  2. For further discussion, see Sarfati, J., Refuting Compromise, Creation Book Publishers, Atlanta, 2011, pp. 175–76. Return to text.
  3. Williams, A., and Hartnett, J., Dismantling the Big Bang, Master Books, Arizona, 2005, p. 120. Return to text.
  4. Including the ‘steady-state’ theory popularized by Fred Hoyle and others, and the ‘plasma theory’ propagated by Eric Lerner in 1991 in his 466-page book The Big Bang Never Happened. Return to text.


  1., Evolution: an ancient pagan idea, by Paul James-Griffiths
  2., Curiosity: Did God create the universe?, by Russell Grigg

Read more

  1., Brain chemistry and the fate of the personality after death
  2., Hawking atheopathy
  3., Our galaxy is the centre of the universe, ‘quantized’ redshifts show
  4., A new age of quantum madness
  5., Infinity through dark glasses
  6., Multiverse theory—unknown science or illogical raison d’être?

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s